Search this site

Monday, February 27, 2012

Migrating from Windows to Ubuntu Linux: Important Linux keyboard shortcuts

Windows key is used as Super Key.

Ctrl + Alt + Delete :Restart the computer immediately, without saving open files

Ctrl + Alt + D: Toggles 'Show Desktop'

Ctrl + Alt + L: 'Lock Screen'

Super + S: Zoom out, show workspace switcher


Ctrl + B: Make the selected text bold

Ctrl + I: Make the selected text italic

Ctrl + U: Underline the selected text

Ctrl + N: Open a new document or window

F7: Check the spelling of the current document


Mouse-Middle Button: To paste a copied text

Ctrl+HOME: go to start of the command line

Ctrl+END: go to end of the command line

Ctrl+L: Clear Screen


Ctrl + R: Reload the current page

GUI based Uncomplicated Firewall (UFW) for Ubuntu Linux

Here are some easy steps for installing and configuring GUFW:

Following websites have been referred for this subject:

Uncomplicated Firewall (UFW) is the standard firewall configuration program in Ubuntu. It is a command line program. Most users will prefer to use Gufw, which is a graphical program to configure UFW.

$ sudo apt-cache search gufw

gufw - graphical user interface for ufw

$ sudo apt-get install gufw

To run:

$ sudo gufw

If u are running through dashboard shorcut then, the GUI of firewall will be initially inactive, to activate it, click the pad-icon:

Move over mouse near Firewall Configuration Menu Bar, Edit> Preference;

Adding/Modifying preconfigured rules: Click to '+' rule> Preconfigured tab> select In/Out and SERVICE:

Anyway ALLOW all OUT and deny ALL IN is best!!! :)

You can simply drag the GUFW to Task Bar for frequent access:

GUI based user friendly Firewall for Linux

There are several firewalls available for Linux distributions. Firestarter (from and IPCop ( are two popular one. says- “Firestarter is an Open Source visual firewall program. The software aims to combine ease of use with powerful features, therefore serving both Linux desktop users and system administrators.”

Some Firestarter features

User friendly, easy to use, graphical interface

Real-time firewall event monitor shows intrusion attempts as they happen

Enables Internet connection sharing, optionally with DHCP service for the clients

Allows you to define both inbound and outbound access policy

Open or stealth ports, shaping your firewalling with just a few mouse clicks

Enable port forwarding for your local network in just seconds

Option to whitelist or blacklist traffic

Real time firewall events view

View active network connections, including any traffic routed through the firewall

Advanced Linux kernel tuning features provide protection from flooding, broadcasting and spoofing

Support for tuning ICMP parameters to stop Denial of Service (DoS) attacks

Support for tuning ToS parameters to improve services for connected client computers

Ability to hook up user defined scripts or rulesets before or after firewall activation

Comprehensive tutorial on Firestarter is available at Here are some important steps related to installation and configurations of Firestarter on Ubuntu:

1. Search

$ sudo apt-cache search firestarter

firestarter - GTK program for managing and observing your firewall

2. Install

$ sudo apt-get install firestarter

3. Run

$ sudo firestarter

6. The default Firestarter policy is as follows:

New inbound connections from the Internet to the firewall or client hosts are blocked.

The firewall host is freely allowed to establish new connections.

All client hosts are allowed to establish new connections to the Internet, but not to the firewall host.

Traffic from the Internet in response to connection requests from the firewall or client hosts is allowed back in through the firewall.

7. The outbound traffic policy groups

Outbound policy controls outgoing traffic to the Internet from the firewall and any LAN clients. The default outbound policy is permissive. This means you and any clients connected to the local network are able to browse the net, read email, etc. unrestricted.

8. Restrictive mode

nothing is allowed out unless you explicitly create a rule for it in one of the groups.


Firestarter reports error on startup:

Failed to open the system log
No event information will be available

Taken from

Possible reason is that syslogd is upgraded to rsyslog by upgraded version of Ubuntu.

Solution is go to the directory /etc/rsyslog.d/ and put a new file in that location that would be included in the configuration so as not to fall foul of an ubuntu upgrade at a later date. Just use command

$ sudo gedit /etc/rsyslog.d/99-fixlog.conf

and write the lines:

mail,news.none -/var/log/messages

restart rsyslog or reboot the computer.

Unfortunately, this also didn't work.


Anybody knowing the solution can share with us!

BleachBit for Linux: Privacy manager and System optimisation

BleachBit from Sourceforge ( is a free software which is available for Linux too. It is a disk space cleaner, privacy manager, and computer optimizer.

BleachBit can be used to:

Free disk space

Reduce the size of backups and the time to create them by removing unnecessary files

Maintain privacy

Improve system performance (by vacuuming the Firefox database, for example)

Prepare whole disk images for compression (common for "ghost" backups and virtual machines) by wiping free disk space

List of cleaners available in BleachBit includes Adobe Reader,, Google Earth, Bash, Firefox, VLC media player etc.

1. Search BleachBit

$ apt-cache search BleachBit

bleachbit - delete unnecessary files from the system

2. Install BleachBit

$ sudo apt-get install bleachbit

3. Run BleachBit

$ sudo bleachbit


Go to Dashboard and open Screenshot:

If you are running BleachBit by clicking icon on dashboard, then select the root-mode based.

Tip: In Ubuntu: if bleach bit is not showing Folders/Files on Desktop for Shredding with root access. Then, click and select " show hidden files" now select File System to root directory then home then user directory then try to open Desktop it should work: