Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is an Internet security protocol which allows Web applications such as Web browsers, Web servers to transmit information securely in encrypted form. When accessing a SSL based Website one can notice that the "http" in the address line is replaced with "https," and a small padlock is visible in front of URL in Opera & Mozilla or in status bar at the bottom of the IE.
Transport Layer Security (TLS) is much similar to SSL, and many people term it as SSL3.1. However, both are in-operable with one another.
TLS has been developed on open community standards, which makes it more extensible and most of the open-source applications prefer it.
TLS Handshake Protocol steps are given below:
1. Client sends a Client Hello message to the server, along with the client's random value (also called nonce or challenge ) and supported cipher suites.
2. Server responds by sending a Server Hello message to the client. Server too sends a random value along with the Server Hello message to avoid replay attacks..
3. Server sends its Certificate to client for authentication and may optionally request a certificate from the client.
4. Server sends the Server Hello Done message.
5. If server has requested a certificate from the client, the client sends it.
6. Client creates and sends server a Pre-Master-Secret encrypted with the public key from the server's certificate.
7. Server and client each generate the Master-Secret and session keys based on the Pre-Master Secret.
8. Client sends Change Cipher Spec notification to server indicating it will start using the new session keys for hashing and encrypting messages.
9. Server sends Change Cipher Spec notification to Client.
10.Client and server can now exchange Application Data over the secured channel encrypted using session key.
Wireshark is a network protocol analyzer for Windows, Linux and other platforms. It lets you capture and interactively analysis the traffic running on a computer network. An example of HTTPS (SSL/TLS) packet analysis with Wireshark is given below.
We have connected to Gmail (https://accounts.google.com) at 220.127.116.11.
- In above snapshot, we have set Filter as ip.addr==18.104.22.168 (GMail server's IP-Address). This makes it easy to concentrate on packets related to Gmail only.
- First three packets shows the Three-way Handshake process of TCP. [Syn-SynAck-Ack]
We can make above Wireshark analysis more compact by restricting to view TLSv1 traffic only:
1.The first TLS packet is a “Client Hello”:
On concentrating TLS Record (Header/Content) of the packet we find: